On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation


Nearly four-fifths of the whole emigration are, accordingly, to be regarded as belonging to the Celtic population of Ireland and of the Highlands and islands of Scotland. The London Economist says of this emigration:

“It is consequent on the breaking down of the system of society founded on small holdings and potato cultivation;” and adds: “The departure of the redundant part of the population of Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland is an indispensable preliminary to every kind of improvement. .The revenue of Ireland has not suffered in any degree from the famine of 1846-47, or from the emigration that has since taken place. On the contrary, her net revenue amounted in 1851 to £4,281,999, being about £184,000 greater than in 1843.”

Begin with pauperising the inhabitants of a country, and when there is no more profit to be ground out of them, when they have grown a burden to the revenue, drive them away, and sum up your Net Revenue! Such is the doctrine laid down by Ricardo, in his celebrated work, “The Principle of Political Economy.” The annual profits of a capitalist amounting to £2,000, what does it matter to him whether he employs 100 men or 1,000 men? “Is not,” says Ricardo, “the real income of a nation similar?” The net real income of a nation, rents and profits, remaining the same, it is no subject of consideration whether it is derived from ten millions of people or from twelve millions. Sismondi, in his “Nouveaux Principes d’Economie Politique,” answers that, according to this view of the matter, the English nation would not be interested at all in the disappearance of the whole population, the King (at that time it was no Queen, but a King) remaining alone in the midst of the island, supposing only that automatic machinery enabled him to procure the amount of net revenue now produced by a population of twenty millions. Indeed that grammatical entity, “the national wealth,” would in this case not be diminished.

But it is not only the pauperised inhabitants of Green Erin [Ireland] and of the Highlands of Scotland that are swept away by agricultural improvements, and by the “breaking down of the antiquated system of society.” It is not only the able-bodied agricultural labourers from England, Wales, and Lower Scotland, whose passages are paid by the Emigration Commissioners. The wheel of “improvement” is now seizing another class, the most stationary class in England. A startling emigration movement has sprung up among the smaller English farmers, especially those holding heavy clay soils, who, with bad prospects for the coming harvest, and in want of sufficient capital to make the great improvements on their farms which would enable them to pay their old rents, have no other alternative but to cross the sea in search of a new country and of new lands, I am not speaking now of the emigration caused by the gold mania, but only of the compulsory emigration produced by landlordism, concentration of farms, application of machinery to the soil, and introduction of the modern system of agriculture on a great scale.

In the ancient States, in Greece and Rome, compulsory emigration, assuming the shape of the periodical establishment of colonies, formed a regular link in the structure of society. The whole system of those States was founded on certain limits to the numbers of the population, which could not be surpassed without endangering the condition of antique civilisation itself. But why was it so? Because the application of science to material production was utterly unknown to them. To remain civilised they were forced to remain few. Otherwise they would have had to submit to the bodily drudgery which transformed the free citizen into a slave. The want of productive power made citizenship dependent on a certain proportion in numbers not to be disturbed. Forced emigration was the only remedy.

It was the same pressure of population on the powers of production. that drove the barbarians from the high plains of Asia to invade the Old World. The same cause acted there, although under a different form. To remain barbarians they were forced to remain few. They were pastoral, hunting, war-waging tribes, whose manners of production required a large space for every individual, as is now the case with the Indian tribes in North-America. By augmenting in numbers they curtailed each other’s field of production. Thus the surplus population was forced to undertake those great adventurous migratory movements which laid the foundation of the peoples of ancient and modern Europe.

But with modern compulsory emigration the case stands quite opposite. Here it is not the want of productive. power which creates a surplus population; it is the increase of productive power which demands a diminution of population, and drives away the surplus by famine or emigration. It is not population that presses on productive power; it is productive power that presses on population.

by Karl Marx

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation


Dispatches for the New York Tribune

Karl Marx
1870: German social, political and economic theorist Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) the inspiration of modern international communism. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Born in Trier in the Rhineland in 1818, Karl Marx was the son of a Jewish lawyer recently converted to Christianity. As a student in Bonn and Berlin, Marx studied law and then philosophy. He joined with the Young Hegelians, the most radical of Hegel’s followers, in denying that Hegel’s philosophy could be reconciled with Christianity or the existing State. Forced out of university by his radicalism, he became a journalist and, soon after, a socialist. He left Prussia for Paris and then Brussels, where he stayed until 1848. In 1844 he began his collaboration with Friedrich Engels and developed a new theory of communism to be brought into being by a proletarian revolution. This theory was brilliantly outlined in The Communist Manifesto. Marx participated in the 1848 revolutions as a newspaper editor in Cologne. Exiled together with his family to London, he tried to make a living writing for the New York Tribune and other journals, but remained financially dependent on Engels. His researches in the British Museum were aimed at underpinning his conception of communism with a theory of history that demonstrated that capitalism was a transient economic form destined to break down and be superseded by a society without classes, private property or state authority. This study was never completed, but its first part, which was published as Capital in 1867, established him as the principal theorist of revolutionary socialism. He died in London in 1883.

Dispatches for the New York Tribune

666 Six Pointed Star

Star of the Kenites

Equilateral Triangle

DOWNLOAD Mathematica Notebook EXPLORE THIS TOPIC IN the MathWorld ClassroomEquilateralTriangle

An equilateral triangle is a triangle with all three sides of equal length a, corresponding to what could also be known as a “regular” triangle. An equilateral triangle is therefore a special case of an isosceles triangle having not just two, but all three sides equal. An equilateral triangle also has three equal 60 degrees angles.

The altitude h of an equilateral triangle is

 h=asin60 degrees=1/2sqrt(3)a,

where a is the side length, so the area is



The inradius rcircumradius R, and area A can be computed directly from the formulas for a general regular polygon with side length a and n=3 sides,

r = 1/2acot(pi/3)
= 1/2atan(pi/6)
= 1/6sqrt(3)a
R = 1/2acsc(pi/3)
= 1/2asec(pi/6)
= 1/3sqrt(3)a
A = 1/4na^2cot(pi/3)
= 1/4sqrt(3)a^2.

The areas of the incircle and circumcircle are

A_r = pir^2
= 1/(12)pia^2
A_R = piR^2
= 1/3pia^2.

Central triangles that are equilateral include the circumnormal trianglecircumtangential trianglefirst Morley triangleinner Napoleon triangleouter Napoleon trianglesecond Morley triangleStammler triangle, and third Morley triangle.


An equation giving an equilateral triangle with R=1 is given by



Geometric construction of an equilateral consists of drawing a diameter of a circle OP_O and then constructing its perpendicular bisector P_3OB. Bisect OB in point D, and extend the line P_1P_2 through D. The resulting figure P_1P_2P_3 is then an equilateral triangle. An equilateral triangle may also be constructed from the intersections of the angle trisectors of the three interior angles of any triangles (Morley’s theorem).

Napoleon’s theorem states that if three equilateral triangles are drawn on the legs of any triangle (either all drawn inwards or outwards) and the centers of these triangles are connected, the result is another equilateral triangle.

Given the distances of a point from the three corners of an equilateral triangle, ab, and c, the length of a side s is given by


(Gardner 1977, pp. 56-57 and 63). There are infinitely many solutions for which ab, and c are integers. In these cases, one of abc, and s is divisible by 3, one by 5, one by 7, and one by 8 (Guy 1994, p. 183).

Begin with an arbitrary triangle and find the excentral triangle. Then find the excentral triangle of that triangle, and so on. Then the resulting triangle approaches an equilateral triangle. The only rational triangle is the equilateral triangle (Conway and Guy 1996). A polyhedron composed of only equilateral triangles is known as a deltahedron.


Let any rectangle be circumscribed about an equilateral triangle. Then


where XY, and Z are the areas of the triangles in the figure (Honsberger 1985).


The smallest equilateral triangle which can be inscribed in a unit square (left figure) has side length and area

s = 1
A = 1/4sqrt(3) approx 0.4330.

The largest equilateral triangle which can be inscribed (right figure) is oriented at an angle of 15 degrees and has side length and area

s = sec(15 degrees)=sqrt(6)-sqrt(2)
A = 2sqrt(3)-3 approx 0.4641

(Madachy 1979).

Greater Israel Project

Greater Israel Project

Oded Yinon, whose 1982 paper for Kivunim (Directions) entitled “A Strategy for Israel in the 1980s”, is often used as a reference point for evidence of an Israeli aim to balkanise the surrounding Arab and Muslim world into ethnic and sectarian mini-states, was recently interviewed. He discussed the notoriety of the document which came to a wider audience a few years later after it was translated into English by Israel Shahak.

But while Yinon down plays the specific application of his paper to actual geopolitical events, the ideas posited in his article have arguably formed an enduring central policy plank of the Zionist state; balkanisation having been a necessary condition first in creating the modern state of Israel, and thereafter as a means of ensuring its survival and maintaining its military dominance in the Middle East.

The Zionist Plan for the Middle East

The Invention Of The Jewish People

Greater Israel Project and Balkanization of Syria