On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation


Nearly four-fifths of the whole emigration are, accordingly, to be regarded as belonging to the Celtic population of Ireland and of the Highlands and islands of Scotland. The London Economist says of this emigration:

“It is consequent on the breaking down of the system of society founded on small holdings and potato cultivation;” and adds: “The departure of the redundant part of the population of Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland is an indispensable preliminary to every kind of improvement. .The revenue of Ireland has not suffered in any degree from the famine of 1846-47, or from the emigration that has since taken place. On the contrary, her net revenue amounted in 1851 to £4,281,999, being about £184,000 greater than in 1843.”

Begin with pauperising the inhabitants of a country, and when there is no more profit to be ground out of them, when they have grown a burden to the revenue, drive them away, and sum up your Net Revenue! Such is the doctrine laid down by Ricardo, in his celebrated work, “The Principle of Political Economy.” The annual profits of a capitalist amounting to £2,000, what does it matter to him whether he employs 100 men or 1,000 men? “Is not,” says Ricardo, “the real income of a nation similar?” The net real income of a nation, rents and profits, remaining the same, it is no subject of consideration whether it is derived from ten millions of people or from twelve millions. Sismondi, in his “Nouveaux Principes d’Economie Politique,” answers that, according to this view of the matter, the English nation would not be interested at all in the disappearance of the whole population, the King (at that time it was no Queen, but a King) remaining alone in the midst of the island, supposing only that automatic machinery enabled him to procure the amount of net revenue now produced by a population of twenty millions. Indeed that grammatical entity, “the national wealth,” would in this case not be diminished.

But it is not only the pauperised inhabitants of Green Erin [Ireland] and of the Highlands of Scotland that are swept away by agricultural improvements, and by the “breaking down of the antiquated system of society.” It is not only the able-bodied agricultural labourers from England, Wales, and Lower Scotland, whose passages are paid by the Emigration Commissioners. The wheel of “improvement” is now seizing another class, the most stationary class in England. A startling emigration movement has sprung up among the smaller English farmers, especially those holding heavy clay soils, who, with bad prospects for the coming harvest, and in want of sufficient capital to make the great improvements on their farms which would enable them to pay their old rents, have no other alternative but to cross the sea in search of a new country and of new lands, I am not speaking now of the emigration caused by the gold mania, but only of the compulsory emigration produced by landlordism, concentration of farms, application of machinery to the soil, and introduction of the modern system of agriculture on a great scale.

In the ancient States, in Greece and Rome, compulsory emigration, assuming the shape of the periodical establishment of colonies, formed a regular link in the structure of society. The whole system of those States was founded on certain limits to the numbers of the population, which could not be surpassed without endangering the condition of antique civilisation itself. But why was it so? Because the application of science to material production was utterly unknown to them. To remain civilised they were forced to remain few. Otherwise they would have had to submit to the bodily drudgery which transformed the free citizen into a slave. The want of productive power made citizenship dependent on a certain proportion in numbers not to be disturbed. Forced emigration was the only remedy.

It was the same pressure of population on the powers of production. that drove the barbarians from the high plains of Asia to invade the Old World. The same cause acted there, although under a different form. To remain barbarians they were forced to remain few. They were pastoral, hunting, war-waging tribes, whose manners of production required a large space for every individual, as is now the case with the Indian tribes in North-America. By augmenting in numbers they curtailed each other’s field of production. Thus the surplus population was forced to undertake those great adventurous migratory movements which laid the foundation of the peoples of ancient and modern Europe.

But with modern compulsory emigration the case stands quite opposite. Here it is not the want of productive. power which creates a surplus population; it is the increase of productive power which demands a diminution of population, and drives away the surplus by famine or emigration. It is not population that presses on productive power; it is productive power that presses on population.

by Karl Marx

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

Dispatches for the New York Tribune

Karl Marx
1870: German social, political and economic theorist Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) the inspiration of modern international communism. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Born in Trier in the Rhineland in 1818, Karl Marx was the son of a Jewish lawyer recently converted to Christianity. As a student in Bonn and Berlin, Marx studied law and then philosophy. He joined with the Young Hegelians, the most radical of Hegel’s followers, in denying that Hegel’s philosophy could be reconciled with Christianity or the existing State. Forced out of university by his radicalism, he became a journalist and, soon after, a socialist. He left Prussia for Paris and then Brussels, where he stayed until 1848. In 1844 he began his collaboration with Friedrich Engels and developed a new theory of communism to be brought into being by a proletarian revolution. This theory was brilliantly outlined in The Communist Manifesto. Marx participated in the 1848 revolutions as a newspaper editor in Cologne. Exiled together with his family to London, he tried to make a living writing for the New York Tribune and other journals, but remained financially dependent on Engels. His researches in the British Museum were aimed at underpinning his conception of communism with a theory of history that demonstrated that capitalism was a transient economic form destined to break down and be superseded by a society without classes, private property or state authority. This study was never completed, but its first part, which was published as Capital in 1867, established him as the principal theorist of revolutionary socialism. He died in London in 1883.

Dispatches for the New York Tribune

Protocols of Zion

Protocols of Zion
Protocols of Zion

In 1884 the daughter of a Russian general, Mlle. Justine Glinka, was endeavoring to serve her country in Paris by obtaining political information, which she communicated to General Orgevskii in St. Petersburg. For this purpose she employed a Jew, Joseph Schorst, member of the Mizraim Lodge in Paris. One day Schorst offered to obtain for her a document of great importance to Russia, on payment of 2,500 francs. This sum being received from St. Petersburg was paid over and the document handed to Mlle. Glinka. She forwarded the French original, accompanied by a Russian translation, to Orgevskii, who in turn handed it to his chief, General Cherevin, for transmission to the Tsar. But Cherevin, under obligation to wealthy Jews, refused to transmit it, merely filing it in the archives.

The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Protocols of Zion

General Order № 11


Headquarters District of the Border,
Kansas City, August 25, 1863.

1. All persons living in Jackson, Cass, and Bates counties, Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman’s Mills, Pleasant Hill, and Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west of Big Blue, are hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof.

Those who within that time establish their loyalty to the satisfaction of the commanding officer of the military station near their present place of residence will receive from him a certificate stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificates will be permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the State of Kansas, except the counties of the eastern border of the State. All others shall remove out of the district. Officers commanding companies and detachments serving in the counties named will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed.

2. All grain and hay in the field or under shelter, in the district from which inhabitants are required to remove, within reach of military stations after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officers there and report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners and amount of such product taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed.

3. The provisions of General Order No. 10 from these headquarters will be at once vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the district and at the station not subject to the operations of paragraph 1 of this order, and especially the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City.

4. Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10 is revoked as to all who have borne arms against the Government in the district since the 20th day of August, 1863.

By order of Brigadier General Ewing.

H. Hannahs, Adjt.-Gen’l.

200 Years Together

200 Years Together

After the uprising, the Jews, on the basis of the Treaty of Belaia Tserkov (1651) were again given the right to resettle in the Ukraine. As before, the Jews were residents and leasers of the royal industries and the industries of the Szlachta, and so it was to remain. Going into the 18th century, brandy distilling was practically the main profession of Jews. This trade often led to conflicts with the peasants, who sometimes were drawn into the taverns not so much because they were well-to-do, but on account of their poverty and misery.

Included among the restrictions placed on the Polish Jews in response to demands of the Catholic Church was the prohibition against Jews having Christian house-servants. Because of the recruitment coupled with the state tax increases in neighboring Russia, not a few refugees came to Poland, where they had no rights. In the debates of Catherine’s commission for reworking a new Law code (1767/68), one could hear that in Poland “already a number of Russian refugees are servants to Jews.”

200 Years Together Alexander Solzhenitsyn

Come out of Her my people


Revelation 18:4 4And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.

Jeremiah 51:45 45My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver ye every man his soul from the fierce anger of the LORD.

2 Corinthians &:1 1Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

Romans 10:10 10For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

Galatians 3:26-27 26For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. 27For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Romans 13:14 14But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof.

Confess Your Sins

Mark 1:3-5 3The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.4John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. 5And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.

1 John 1:5-10 5This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. 6If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth: 7But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 8If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 10If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.


Ezekiel 18:30-31 30Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways, saith the Lord GOD. Repent, and turn yourselves from all your transgressions; so iniquity shall not be your ruin. 31Cast away from you all your transgressions, whereby ye have transgressed; and make you a new heart and a new spirit: for why will ye die, O house of Israel?

2 Corinthians 7:10 10For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world worketh death.

2 Corinthians 12:20-21 20For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and that I shall be found unto you such as ye would not: lest there be debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults: 21And lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail many which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which they have committed.

Acts 2:38 38Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Acts 3:19 19Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord.

Acts 5:31 31Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.

Acts 26:20 20But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.

Revelation 9:20-21 20And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk: 21Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.

This is an example of the prayer I used to draw near to God, through the Blood of Jesus Christ! I used this prayer for about five months according to the weaknesses I had at the time. Our prayer list changes over time as we get closer to God and we don’t sin as much as we did when we first begun. Start with Praise God! Thank-you Jesus! Glory be to God! Jesus is Lord! Praise be to Jesus! Hallelujah! Etc. Say this over and over.

1. I put the blood of Jesus over every part of this building or house. I put the blood of Jesus over every part of the people in this building or house.

2. I put the blood of Jesus over everyone I meet today, I see today, and I speak to today. Have your perfect will in every part of them in Jesus Holy name. I put the blood of Jesus over there harden hearts. Father, Holy God of heaven soften there harden hearts according to your will and ways. Bless them mightily with Your perfect love and perfect truth in your Son Jesus Holy name.

3. I  put the blood of Jesus over self-thinking, self-believing, self-speaking, self-doing and self-wanting.

4. I humble myself before you Father, God of heaven. I humble my self before all mankind. God be merciful to me a sinner in Jesus name.

5. I put the blood of Jesus over my mind. Lord Jesus pour out your precious, powerful, healing blood over my mind. Wash my mind in your blood, Lord Jesus. Cleanse my mind and make it white as snow. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over my mind in Jesus Holy name. I put on the mind of Christ in Jesus name!

6. I put all my trust in my Father, God of heaven thru His son Jesus Holy name.

7. I  put the blood of Jesus over every part of me. Father, Holy God of heaven search every part of me for any sin that is in me and search every part of me for anything I have done this day that is displeasing to you in Jesus Holy name.

8. I  put the blood of Jesus over every part of me. I put the blood of Jesus over all my sins, wash me in your precious blood Lord Jesus, pour out your blood over every part of me Lord Jesus, cleanse me and make me white as snow Lord Jesus.

9. Father Holy God of heaven forgive me of all I’ve done this day that was displeasing to you in Jesus Holy name. Father, Holy God of heaven forgive me of all my sins in Jesus Holy name.

10. I put all my unrighteousness, all my sins, iniquities, abominations, transgressions, trespasses, wrong doing, wrong thinking, wrong believing and wrong speaking right up to this second in time into your Holy Sea of forgetfulness, Father, God of heaven in Jesus Holy name.

11. I  put the blood of Jesus over pride, arrogance, conceit and vanity. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over all pride in Jesus Holy name.

12. Father, God I command you in Jesus name to be master of my mind, my life, my heart, my soul, my spirit and my body.

13. Father in Jesus name I command you to deliver me from self natural human spirit, Satan, and death in Jesus Holy name.

14. I  put the blood of Jesus over debate and contention. Father, Holy God of heaven, in Jesus name I command you to deliver me from the demon spirit of debate and the demon spirit of contention. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over debate and contention in Jesus Holy name.

15. I  put the blood of Jesus over all doubt and unbelief. Father, Holy God of heaven, in Jesus name I command you to deliver me from the demon spirit of doubt and the demon spirit of unbelief. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over all doubt and unbelief in Jesus Holy name.

16. I  put the blood of Jesus over judging and condemning. Father, Holy God of heaven, in Jesus Holy name I command you to deliver me from the demon spirit of judging and the demon spirit of condemning. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over judging and condemning in Jesus Holy name.

17. I  put the blood of Jesus over resentment and rebellion. Father, Holy God of Heaven give me the victory over resentment and rebellion in Jesus Holy name.

18. I  put the blood of Jesus over defiance. Father, Holy God of Heaven give me the victory over all defiance in Jesus Holy name.

19. I  put the blood of Jesus over self glorification. Father, Holy God of Heaven give me the victory over self glorification in Jesus Holy name.

20. I  put the blood of Jesus over self exaltation. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over self exaltation in Jesus Holy name.

21. I  put the blood of Jesus over all hate. Father, Holy God of heaven deliver me from hate in Jesus Holy name.

22. I  put the blood of Jesus over my strong opinions. Father, Holy God of heaven deliver me from my strong opinions in Jesus Holy name.

23. I  put the blood of Jesus over haughty mind, haughty walk, haughty talk, and haughty look. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over all haughtiness in Jesus Holy name.

24. I  put the blood of Jesus over all my sexuality in Jesus Holy name. Father, Holy God of heaven give me the victory over all my sexuality in Jesus Holy name.

25. I  put the blood of Jesus over double mind ness, and instability.

26. I  put the blood of Jesus over worries, frustration and stress.

27. I  put the blood of Jesus over confusion, nervousness, tension and fear.

28. I  put the blood of Jesus over boredom and loneliness.

29. I  put the blood of Jesus over lust, adultery and fornication.

30. I  put the blood of Jesus over love of self pleasures.

31. I  put the blood of Jesus over sicknesses and diseases.

32. I  put the blood of Jesus over head strong, and wandering mind.

33. I  put the blood of Jesus over all demonic spirits listed in the Bible.

34. I  put the blood of Jesus over all demonic spirits listed in the dictionary of the world.

35. I  put the blood of Jesus over all demonic spirits I don’t know the names of or know exist.

36. I  put the blood of Jesus over every evil spirit. Father, God cast out all these evil spirits from every part of me and cast them back into the center of hell and don’t let them come back on me again in Jesus Holy name.

37. God bless me with your perfect love that sets me free from all fears of the Devil and Satan in Jesus name. God bless me with your perfect truth in your son that sets me free from all lies, snares and traps of the Devil Satan.

38. I have my loins girded with the truth, which is the power of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit of incredible lasting life of great peace and joy to the fullest in our Lord Jesus Christ. I put on the breastplate of righteousness in God and His perfect will, which is love and peace. I shod my feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace and I will walk with God of Heaven rejoicing through time forever. I put on the shield of faith, wherewith I shall be protected from all the fiery darts of the evil one. I put on the helmet of salvation, which is the precious blood of Jesus Christ. I put on the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God and the truths I know of the Holy truth in flaming fire.

39. Start praising God: Praise God, thank you Jesus, Hallelujah, etc.

40. I pray Father God to give me wisdom, knowledge and understanding that I may have discernment in these last days in Jesus name.

Conviction! (Convictions are things like pressure in your head, flu like symptoms, pain in some part of your body, etc.) When I get a conviction? I put the blood of Jesus over every part of me. I put the blood of Jesus over all your sins. (Ask God) Father, Holy God of heaven, “Is there something you want me to know.” If He says, “Yes!” Then ask, Father, Holy God of heaven, “What do you want me to know?” He will give you the sin. Then you can put the Blood of Jesus over every part of that sin. Ask, Father, Holy God of Heaven have mercy on me, forgive me of (sin) in Jesus Holy name. Father, Holy God of Heaven give me the victory over (sin) in Jesus Holy name.

Casting out Satan and the Devil! Get the hence or get behind me Satan/the Devil in Jesus Holy name. I resist you Satan in Jesus name. I am a child of God. I command you to depart from me immediately and take your stinking demons with you in Jesus Holy name.

Casting out demons! Father in heaven I command your hand in the name of Jesus to cast out the demon spirit of (name of demon spirit), bind him up and tie him up; cast him back into the pits of hell, where he came from, not to come back upon me again in Jesus Holy name.

The Past! What’s done is done, what’s in the past is past. I put the blood of Jesus over my looking back and giving place to the past and dwelling upon it. Enemies I put the blood of Jesus Christ over that person (name of person) and his heart. Father I command you in the name of Jesus to soften his/her harden heart and avenge him according to your will and ways. God bless him/her with your perfect love and perfect truth in Jesus mighty name.

The Crowd


The disappearance of conscious personality and the turning of feelings and thoughts in a definite direction, which are the primary characteristics of a crowd about to become organised, do not always involve the simultaneous presence of a number of individuals on one spot. Thousands of isolated individuals may acquire at certain moments, and under the influence of certain violent emotions–such, for example, as a great national event–the characteristics of a psychological crowd.

It will be sufficient in that case that a mere chance should bring them together for their acts to at once assume the characteristics peculiar to the acts of a crowd. At certain moments half a dozen men might constitute a psychological crowd, which may not happen in the case of hundreds of men gathered together by accident. On the other hand, an entire nation, though there may be no visible agglomeration, may become a crowd under the action of certain

A psychological crowd once constituted, it acquires certain provisional but determinable general characteristics. To these general characteristics there are adjoined particular characteristics which vary according to the elements of which the crowd is composed, and may modify its mental constitution. Psychological crowds, then, are susceptible of classification; and when we come to occupy ourselves with this matter, we shall see that a heterogeneous crowd–that is, a crowd composed of dissimilar elements–presents certain characteristics in common with homogeneous crowds–that is, with crowds composed of elements more or less akin (sects, castes, and classes)–and side by side with these common characteristics particularities which permit of the two kinds of crowds being differentiated.

The Crowd



THE conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling
power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.

Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet. They govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their ability to supply needed ideas and by their key position in the social structure. Whatever attitude one chooses to take toward this condition, it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons—a trifling fraction of our hundred and twenty million—who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and guide the world.

Propaganda Edward Bernays

Communism and Syndicalism


Leon Trotsky

(October 1929)

THE trade union question is one of the most important for the labour movement and, consequently, for the Opposition. Without a precise position on the trade union question, the Opposition will be unable to win real influence in the working class. That is why I believe it necessary to submit here, for discussion, a few considerations on the trade union question.

1. The Communist Party is the fundamental weapon of revolutionary action of the proletariat the combat organisation of its vanguard that must raise itself to the role of leader of the working class in all the spheres of its struggle without exception, and consequently, in the trade union field.

2. Those who, in principle, counterpose trade union autonomy to the leadership of the Communist Party, counterpose thereby – whether they want to or not – the most backward proletarian section to the vanguard of the working class, the struggle for immediate demands to the struggle for the complete liberation of the workers, reformism to Communism, opportunism to revolutionary Marxism.

3. Prewar French syndicalism, at the epoch of its rise and expansion, by fighting for trade union autonomy actually fought for its independence from the bourgeois government and its parties, among them that of reformist-parliamentary socialism. This was a struggle against opportunism – for a revolutionary road.

Continue reading “Communism and Syndicalism”