Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century is the first book to analyze how the technology to alter images and rapidly distribute them can be used for propaganda and deception operations. Such images have already appeared, including altered images of British troops abusing prisoners in Iraq and altered photographs of a 1970s anti-Vietnam War rally with Jane Fonda sitting near 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry. Using examples from history, Scot Macdonald outlines the principles of propaganda and deception, and presents a history of the use of altered images (both still and moving) in politics, diplomacy, espionage and war. Discussion of the key elements of propaganda, deception and photography serve as the foundation for an examination of why the United States and the West are likely targets for attacks using altered images, how adversaries might use such images against the West and what the possible defenses are against them. Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century will be of great interest to students of information war, propaganda, public diplomacy and security studies in general.