Amos 8:11-13: 11 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord: 12 And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. 13 In that day shall the fair virgins and young men faint for thirst.
Attacking an ideology is among the most difficult assaults known to conventional warfare practitioners. Ideologies are based on transcendent ideas and are inherently complex military problems. Ideologies are at a minimum: very difficult to eradicate kinetically, highly dynamic, garner support for often undetectable reasons, contain both intangible and tangible attributes, generate visceral enmity, compel noncombatants to take up arms, influence strategic, operational and tactical relationships and in the simplest form present a daunting challenge for most conventionally trained military forces. Tomorrow’s US military must approach war fighting with an alternate mindset that is prepared to leverage all elements of national power to influence the ideological spheres of future enemies by engaging them with alternate means—memes—to gain advantage. In the menu of tools to combat ideologies, there are but a few which offer a measure of promise. Among these tools are memes. This paper will present a military application and construct using memes designed to understand and defeat an enemy ideology and win over the masses of undecided noncombatants.
Wartime art is not completely stripped of artistic beauty; instead it engenders a different sensibility: beauty in the human condition, beauty in human compassion, and a continued sense of hope despite tragedy. World War II is a good representation of this particular genre of art. Lanker and Newnham have observed that “no single event in the history of mankind was more documented through art while it happened than World War II.” Throughout World War II commercial art, in addition to radio reports and newsreels, remained a constant informational resource to the public by informing the home front of the evolving events through posters, newspaper cartoons, and comic books. Overseas combat art allowed the public to gain a glimpse into the action of the war through sketches and paintings. Thus, it is through these mediums that this discussion will examine the uses of commercial and combat art within the United States during World War II. Specifically, the main intent is to analyze the motivations behind a selection of sketches, paintings, posters, advertising, and comics and their impact on society.
The crises Eisenhower faced at the end of 1957 can be traced to both domestic and foreign policy issues. Without under emphasizing the widespread disenchantment with Eisenhower’s handling of race relations and the economy, the concern of most Americans in late 1957 lay elsewhere. For the first time, the Soviet Union had made a significant technological advancement ahead of the United States. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union shocked the world with the launch of Sputnik. Coupled with the Kremlin’s earlier claim of a successful test of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), the launch of Sputnik II on November 3, and the embarrassing failure of the United States Vanguard rocket in December, the Soviet satellite represented a clear challenge to U.S. technological superiority. More importantly, it raised the possibility that the Soviet Union might be able to launch a surprise nuclear attack against the United States using this new missile technology. Eisenhower’s attempts to minimize the implications of the Soviet accomplishments only inflated fears as many Americans assumed he was trying to conceal U.S. military weaknesses.
The ARPANET is an operational, resource sharing inter-computer network linking a wide variety of computers at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored research centers and other DoD and non-DoD activities in CONUS, Hawaii, Norway, and England. The ARPANET originated as a purely experimental network in late 1969 under a research and development program sponsored by DARPA to advance the state-of-the-art in computer internetting. The network was designed to provide efficient communications between heterogeneous computers so that hardware, software, and data resources could be conveniently and economically shared by a wide community of users. As the network successfully attained its initial design goals, additional users were authorized access to the network. Today, the ARPANET provides support for a large number of DoD projects and other non-DoD govern- ment projects with an operational network of many nodes and host computers.