Amos 8:11-13: 11 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord: 12 And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. 13 In that day shall the fair virgins and young men faint for thirst.
Attacking an ideology is among the most difficult assaults known to conventional warfare practitioners. Ideologies are based on transcendent ideas and are inherently complex military problems. Ideologies are at a minimum: very difficult to eradicate kinetically, highly dynamic, garner support for often undetectable reasons, contain both intangible and tangible attributes, generate visceral enmity, compel noncombatants to take up arms, influence strategic, operational and tactical relationships and in the simplest form present a daunting challenge for most conventionally trained military forces. Tomorrow’s US military must approach war fighting with an alternate mindset that is prepared to leverage all elements of national power to influence the ideological spheres of future enemies by engaging them with alternate means—memes—to gain advantage. In the menu of tools to combat ideologies, there are but a few which offer a measure of promise. Among these tools are memes. This paper will present a military application and construct using memes designed to understand and defeat an enemy ideology and win over the masses of undecided noncombatants.
Wartime art is not completely stripped of artistic beauty; instead it engenders a different sensibility: beauty in the human condition, beauty in human compassion, and a continued sense of hope despite tragedy. World War II is a good representation of this particular genre of art. Lanker and Newnham have observed that “no single event in the history of mankind was more documented through art while it happened than World War II.” Throughout World War II commercial art, in addition to radio reports and newsreels, remained a constant informational resource to the public by informing the home front of the evolving events through posters, newspaper cartoons, and comic books. Overseas combat art allowed the public to gain a glimpse into the action of the war through sketches and paintings. Thus, it is through these mediums that this discussion will examine the uses of commercial and combat art within the United States during World War II. Specifically, the main intent is to analyze the motivations behind a selection of sketches, paintings, posters, advertising, and comics and their impact on society.
The crises Eisenhower faced at the end of 1957 can be traced to both domestic and foreign policy issues. Without under emphasizing the widespread disenchantment with Eisenhower’s handling of race relations and the economy, the concern of most Americans in late 1957 lay elsewhere. For the first time, the Soviet Union had made a significant technological advancement ahead of the United States. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union shocked the world with the launch of Sputnik. Coupled with the Kremlin’s earlier claim of a successful test of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), the launch of Sputnik II on November 3, and the embarrassing failure of the United States Vanguard rocket in December, the Soviet satellite represented a clear challenge to U.S. technological superiority. More importantly, it raised the possibility that the Soviet Union might be able to launch a surprise nuclear attack against the United States using this new missile technology. Eisenhower’s attempts to minimize the implications of the Soviet accomplishments only inflated fears as many Americans assumed he was trying to conceal U.S. military weaknesses.
The ARPANET is an operational, resource sharing inter-computer network linking a wide variety of computers at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored research centers and other DoD and non-DoD activities in CONUS, Hawaii, Norway, and England. The ARPANET originated as a purely experimental network in late 1969 under a research and development program sponsored by DARPA to advance the state-of-the-art in computer internetting. The network was designed to provide efficient communications between heterogeneous computers so that hardware, software, and data resources could be conveniently and economically shared by a wide community of users. As the network successfully attained its initial design goals, additional users were authorized access to the network. Today, the ARPANET provides support for a large number of DoD projects and other non-DoD govern- ment projects with an operational network of many nodes and host computers.
What Dickens wrote of the last quarter of the 18th century fits the present period all too well. The quest for a world structure that secures peace, advances human rights and provides the conditions for economic progress for what is loosely called world order has never seemed more frustrating but at the same time strangely hopeful. Certainly the gap has never loomed larger between the objectives and the capacities of the international organizations that were supposed to get mankind on the road to world order. We are witnessing an outbreak of shortsighted nationalism that seems oblivious to the economic, political and moral implications of interdependence. Yet never has there been such widespread recognition by the world’s intellectual leadership of the necessity for cooperation and planning on a truly global basis, beyond country, beyond region, especially beyond social system. Never has there been such an extraordinary growth in the constructive potential of transnational private organizations not just multinational corporations but international associations of every kind in which like-minded persons around the world weave effective patterns of global action. And never have we seen such an impressive array of ongoing negotiations aimed at the cooperative management of global problems. To familiar phrases like the “population explosion” and the “communications explosion” we should now add the “negotiation explosion.”
In the years ahead, social-behavioral (SB) modeling (i.e., modeling that reflects behavior of individuals and social entities) should help us (1) understand certain classes of SB phenomena with national significance; (2) anticipate how those phenomena may plausibly unfold; (3) estimate potential desirable and undesirable effects of additional events in the world or of possible U.S. or adversary interventions; and (4) inform decision making. The phenomena of interest span a broad gamut that includes radicalization for terrorism, the weakening of democracy and national cohesion by foreign information operations campaigns, improving prospects for stability after international interventions, managing behaviors of populations after natural disasters, and dealing with opioid or obesity epidemics. Each such topic would be a good “national challenge,” as discussed later. Each has complex multidimensional social phenomena that are difficult to analyze without the unique power of modeling. In other domains, such modeling helps planners to strategize, plan, design, and adapt. It helps to avoid blunders and bad side effects of policy interventions.
The paradox of our time is that humanity is becoming simultaneously more unified and more fragmented. That is the principal thrust of contemporary change. Time and space have become so compressed that global politics manifest a tendency toward larger, more interwoven forms of cooperation as well as toward the dissolution of established institutional and ideological loyalties. Humanity is becoming more integral and intimate even as the differences in the condition of the separate societies are widening. Under these circumstances proximity, instead of promoting unity, gives rise to tensions prompted by a new sense of global congestion. A new pattern of international politics is emerging.
The world is ceasing to be an arena in which relatively self contained, “sovereign,” and homogeneous nations interact, collaborate, clash, or make war. International politics, in the original sense of the term, were born when groups of people began to identify themselves— and others—in mutually exclusive terms (territory, language, symbols, beliefs), and when that identification became in turn the dominant factor in relations between these groups. The concept of national interest—based on geographical factors, traditional animosities or friendships, economics, and security considerations— implied a degree of autonomy and specificity that was possible only so long as nations were sufficiently separated in time and space to have both the room to maneuver and the distance needed to maintain separate identity.
AI is enabling increasingly realistic photo, audio, and video forgeries, or “deep fakes,” that adversaries could deploy as part of their information operations. Indeed, deep fake technology could be used against the United States and U.S. allies to generate false news reports, influence public discourse, erode public trust, and attempt to blackmail diplomats. Although most previous deep fakes have been detectable by experts, the sophistication of the technology is progressing to the point that it may soon be capable of fooling forensic analysis tools. In order to combat deep fake technologies, DARPA has launched the Media Forensics (MediFor) project, which seeks to “automatically detect manipulations, provide detailed information about how these manipulations were performed, and reason about the overall integrity of visual media.” MediFor has developed some initial tools for identifying AI-produced forgeries, but as one analyst has noted, “a key problem … is that machine-learning systems can be trained to outmaneuver forensics tools.” For this reason, DARPA plans to host follow-on contests to
ensure that forensic tools keep pace with deep fake technologies.
A partial list of products made from Petroleum (6000 items). One 42-gallon barrel of oil creates 19.4 gallons of gasoline. The rest (over half) is used to make things like: Although the major use of petroleum is as a fuel, (gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil), and petroleum and natural gas are often used to generate electricity, there are many other uses. Here are some of the ways petroleum is used in our every day lives. All plastic is made from petroleum and plastic is used almost everywhere: in cars, houses, toys, computers and clothing. Asphalt used in road construction is a petroleum product as is the synthetic rubber in the tires. Paraffin wax comes from petroleum, as do fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, detergents, phonograph records, photographic film, furniture, packaging materials, surfboards, paints, and artificial fibers used in clothing, upholstery, and carpet backing.